wheat straw (#991)

ID-number#991
Materialwheat straw
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ wheat ▸ wheat straw
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro ▸ [223] tarwestro
Ash typeASTM D1102 600 oC
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
RemarksOregon, Hydraco, fuel sample from firing test
LiteratureT. R. Miles, T. R. Miles,Jr, L. Baxter, R. W. Bryers, B. M. Jenkins and L. L. Oden: Alkali deposits found in biomass power plants. A preliminary investigation of their extend and nature, NREL/TP-433-8142, 82 p. (1995).

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Main biomass properties

Proximate analysis

Moisture content wt% 9.89
Ash content wt% 3.89 4.32
Volatile matter wt% 70.84 78.62 82.17
Fixed carbon wt% 15.37 17.06 17.83 Calculated

Ultimate analysis (macroelements)

Carbon wt% 42.32 46.96 49.08 Measured
Hydrogen wt% 5.13 5.69 5.95 Measured
Oxygen wt% 38.09 42.27 44.18 Calculated
Nitrogen wt% 0.39 0.43 0.45 Measured
Sulphur wt% 0.17 0.19 0.20 Measured
Total (with halides) wt% 100.00 100.00 100.00 Calculated

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 1 261.5 1 400.0 1 463.2 Measured

Heating value

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 15.28 17.22 18.00
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 16.64 18.46 19.30
HHVMilne MJ/kg 16.55 18.36 19.19 Calculated

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 4.92
P2O5 wt% (ash) 3.32
SiO2 wt% (ash) 46.07
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 1.85
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 1.69
CaO wt% (ash) 9.95
MgO wt% (ash) 2.45
Na2O wt% (ash) 1.18
K2O wt% (ash) 25.20
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.09