barley (#946)

ID-number#946
Materialbarley
Descriptionpulverized
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ barley ▸ barley
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro ▸ [222] gerstestro
Ash typeashed at 500 degC at reducing atmosphere
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
LiteratureJ. B. Illerup and O. Rathmann: CO2 gasification of wheat straw, barley straw, willow and giganteus, Rosoe, Denmark, Risoe-R-873(EN), 32 p. (1996).

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 12.10
Ash content wt% 2.40 2.73
Volatile matter wt% 70.23 79.90 82.14
Fixed carbon wt% 15.27 17.37 17.86 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 41.50 47.21 48.54 Measured
Hydrogen wt% 5.40 6.14 6.32 Measured
Nitrogen wt% 0.70 0.80 0.82 Measured
Sulphur wt% 0.13 0.15 0.15 Measured
Oxygen wt% 37.51 42.67 43.87 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 100.00 100.00 100.00 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 15.49 17.95 18.46
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 16.96 19.29 19.84
HHVMilne MJ/kg 16.68 18.97 19.51 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 2 600.0 2 957.9 3 040.9 Measured

Major elements

Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 13 700.0 Measured
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 550.0 Measured

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 160
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 230
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 250

Ash Properties

Ash composition

CO2 wt% (ash) 6.20
SO3 wt% (ash) 4.30
Cl wt% (ash) 4.50
P2O5 wt% (ash) 4.90
SiO2 wt% (ash) 22.00
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.67
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.64
CaO wt% (ash) 18.00
MgO wt% (ash) 2.10
Na2O wt% (ash) 1.90
K2O wt% (ash) 41.00