wheat straw (#945)

ID-number#945
Materialwheat straw
Descriptionpulverized
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ wheat ▸ wheat straw
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro ▸ [223] tarwestro
Ash typeashed at 500 degC at reducing atmosphere
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
LiteratureJ. B. Illerup and O. Rathmann: CO2 gasification of wheat straw, barley straw, willow and giganteus, Rosoe, Denmark, Risoe-R-873(EN), 32 p. (1996).

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 10.00
Ash content wt% 5.76 6.40
Volatile matter wt% 69.57 77.30 82.59
Fixed carbon wt% 14.67 16.30 17.41 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 42.48 47.20 50.43 Measured
Hydrogen wt% 5.22 5.80 6.20 Measured
Nitrogen wt% 0.63 0.70 0.75 Measured
Sulphur wt% 0.15 0.17 0.18 Measured
Oxygen wt% 35.60 39.56 42.26 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 100.00 100.00 100.00 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 15.81 17.84 19.06
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 17.19 19.10 20.41
HHVMilne MJ/kg 16.97 18.85 20.14 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 1 530.0 1 700.0 1 816.2 Measured

Major elements

Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 6 300.0 Measured
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 310.0 Measured

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 790
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 120
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 320

Ash Properties

Ash composition

CO2 wt% (ash) 0.31
SO3 wt% (ash) 2.60
Cl wt% (ash) 0.55
P2O5 wt% (ash) 2.40
SiO2 wt% (ash) 62.00
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 2.00
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 1.70
CaO wt% (ash) 8.10
MgO wt% (ash) 1.80
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.36
K2O wt% (ash) 14.00