wheat straw, untreated (#767)

ID-number#767
Materialwheat straw, untreated
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ wheat
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro ▸ [223] tarwestro
Ash type2 h at 575 degC
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
LiteratureB. M. Jenkins, R. R. Bakker and J. B. Wei: On the properties of washed straw. Biomass and Bioenergy 10 (4) pp. 177-200 (1996).

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% (ar)
Ash content wt% 12.78

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 42.49 48.72 Measured
Hydrogen wt% 5.12 5.87 Measured
Nitrogen wt% 0.68 0.78 Measured
Sulphur wt% 0.39 0.45 Measured
Oxygen wt% 36.52 41.87 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 100.00 100.00 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 15.98 18.32
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 17.10 19.61
HHVMilne MJ/kg 16.65 19.09 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 20 200.0 23 159.8 Measured

Major elements

Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 19 500.0 Measured
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 10 000.0 Measured
Calcium (Ca) mg/kg (dry) 4 300.0 Measured
Magnesium (Mg) mg/kg (dry) 1 900.0 Measured
Phosphorus (P) mg/kg (dry) 800.0 Measured

Ash Properties

Ash composition

CO2 wt% (ash) 0.12
SO3 wt% (ash) 5.46
Cl wt% (ash) 14.70
P2O5 wt% (ash) 1.47
SiO2 wt% (ash) 35.84
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.97
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 2.46
CaO wt% (ash) 4.66
MgO wt% (ash) 2.51
Na2O wt% (ash) 10.50
K2O wt% (ash) 18.40
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.15