wheat straw (#459)

ID-number#459
Materialwheat straw
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ wheat ▸ wheat straw
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro ▸ [223] tarwestro
Ash typeindustrial
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Remarks56% of Na2O in ash is acid extractible, 59% of K2O in ash is acid extractible
LiteratureW. R. Livingston: Straw ash characteristics, Babcock Energy Limited, DE92 519748, 23 p. (1991).

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 15.10
Ash content wt% 7.60 8.95
Volatile matter wt% 62.32 73.40 80.62
Fixed carbon wt% 14.98 17.65 19.38 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 37.29 43.92 48.24 Measured
Hydrogen wt% 4.69 5.52 6.07 Measured
Nitrogen wt% 0.62 0.73 0.80 Measured
Sulphur wt% 0.19 0.22 0.25 Measured
Oxygen wt% 34.29 40.39 44.36 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 100.00 100.00 100.00 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 13.60 16.45 18.07
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 14.99 17.65 19.39
HHVMilne MJ/kg 14.63 17.24 18.93 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 2 200.0 2 591.3 2 846.0 Measured

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 080
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 280
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 500

American standard method, measured in reducing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 000
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 280
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 500

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 6.02
P2O5 wt% (ash) 3.02
SiO2 wt% (ash) 42.79
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.39
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.09
CaO wt% (ash) 12.03
MgO wt% (ash) 3.70
Na2O wt% (ash) 1.54
K2O wt% (ash) 24.10
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.10