wheat straw (#457)

ID-number#457
Materialwheat straw
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ wheat ▸ wheat straw
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro ▸ [223] tarwestro
Ash typelaboratory
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Literaturehttp://edv1.vt.tuwien.ac.at/AG_HOFBA/BIOBIB/Biobib.htm (1997).

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% (ar)
Ash content wt% 6.63

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 46.44 49.74 Unknown
Hydrogen wt% 5.24 5.61 Unknown
Nitrogen wt% 0.51 0.55 Unknown
Sulphur wt% 0.06 0.06 Unknown
Oxygen wt% 40.64 43.53 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 100.00 100.00 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 17.12 18.33
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 18.27 19.57
HHVMilne MJ/kg 17.73 18.99 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 4 800.0 5 140.8 Unknown

Minor elements

Cadmium (Cd) mg/kg (dry) 0.2 Unknown
Copper (Cu) mg/kg (dry) 2.0 Unknown
Lead (Pb) mg/kg (dry) 0.4 Unknown
Mercury (Hg) mg/kg (dry) 0.0 Unknown

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 800
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 860
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 130
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 220

Ash Properties

Ash composition

CO2 wt% (ash) 0.70
SO3 wt% (ash) 1.55
Cl wt% (ash) 4.14
P2O5 wt% (ash) 2.74
SiO2 wt% (ash) 66.00
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.09
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.17
CaO wt% (ash) 4.40
MgO wt% (ash) 0.81
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.14
K2O wt% (ash) 20.10
Pb mg/kg (ash) 2.0
Cd mg/kg (ash) 0.0
Cu mg/kg (ash) 13.0
Hg mg/kg (ash) 0.0