wheat straw (#454)

ID-number#454
Materialwheat straw
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ wheat ▸ wheat straw
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro ▸ [223] tarwestro
Ash typelaboratory
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Literaturehttp://edv1.vt.tuwien.ac.at/AG_HOFBA/BIOBIB/Biobib.htm (1997).

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% (ar)
Ash content wt% 3.22

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 48.11 49.71 Unknown
Hydrogen wt% 5.64 5.83 Unknown
Nitrogen wt% 0.28 0.29 Unknown
Sulphur wt% 0.03 0.03 Unknown
Oxygen wt% 42.67 44.09 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 100.00 100.00 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 17.84 18.43
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 19.08 19.71
HHVMilne MJ/kg 18.66 19.28 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 500.0 516.6 Unknown

Minor elements

Cadmium (Cd) mg/kg (dry) 0.2 Unknown
Copper (Cu) mg/kg (dry) 11.4 Unknown
Lead (Pb) mg/kg (dry) 3.1 Unknown
Mercury (Hg) mg/kg (dry) 0.0 Unknown

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 900
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 1 110
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 270
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 330

Ash Properties

Ash composition

CO2 wt% (ash) 1.76
SO3 wt% (ash) 0.83
Cl wt% (ash) 0.17
P2O5 wt% (ash) 2.75
SiO2 wt% (ash) 62.50
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.29
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.48
CaO wt% (ash) 4.03
MgO wt% (ash) 0.75
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.21
K2O wt% (ash) 5.90
Pb mg/kg (ash) 20.0
Cd mg/kg (ash) 0.0
Cu mg/kg (ash) 23.0
Hg mg/kg (ash) 0.0