wheat straw (#427)

ID-number#427
Materialwheat straw
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ wheat ▸ wheat straw
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro ▸ [223] tarwestro
Ash typelaboratory
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Literaturehttp://edv1.vt.tuwien.ac.at/AG_HOFBA/BIOBIB/Biobib.htm (1997).

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% (ar)
Ash content wt% 5.16

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 45.96 48.46 Unknown
Hydrogen wt% 5.50 5.80 Unknown
Nitrogen wt% 1.54 1.62 Unknown
Sulphur wt% 0.11 0.12 Unknown
Oxygen wt% 41.47 43.73 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 100.00 100.00 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 17.23 18.16
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 18.44 19.44
HHVMilne MJ/kg 17.71 18.68 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 2 600.0 2 741.5 Unknown

Minor elements

Cadmium (Cd) mg/kg (dry) 0.2 Unknown
Copper (Cu) mg/kg (dry) 3.7 Unknown
Lead (Pb) mg/kg (dry) 0.3 Unknown
Mercury (Hg) mg/kg (dry) 0.0 Unknown

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 010
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 1 020
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 170
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 220

Ash Properties

Ash composition

CO2 wt% (ash) 1.10
SO3 wt% (ash) 1.49
Cl wt% (ash) 2.87
P2O5 wt% (ash) 7.86
SiO2 wt% (ash) 45.50
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.22
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.33
CaO wt% (ash) 4.30
MgO wt% (ash) 2.65
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.15
K2O wt% (ash) 15.10
Pb mg/kg (ash) 4.0
Cd mg/kg (ash) 0.2
Cu mg/kg (ash) 46.0
Hg mg/kg (ash) 0.0