wheat straw (#425)

ID-number#425
Materialwheat straw
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ wheat ▸ wheat straw
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro ▸ [223] tarwestro
Ash typelaboratory
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Literaturehttp://edv1.vt.tuwien.ac.at/AG_HOFBA/BIOBIB/Biobib.htm (1997).

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% (ar)
Ash content wt% 4.58

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 46.59 48.83 Unknown
Hydrogen wt% 5.44 5.70 Unknown
Nitrogen wt% 1.26 1.32 Unknown
Sulphur wt% 0.09 0.09 Unknown
Oxygen wt% 41.67 43.67 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 100.00 100.00 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 19.55 20.49
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 20.75 21.74
HHVMilne MJ/kg 17.87 18.72 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 3 700.0 3 877.6 Unknown

Minor elements

Cadmium (Cd) mg/kg (dry) 0.1 Unknown
Copper (Cu) mg/kg (dry) 3.5 Unknown
Lead (Pb) mg/kg (dry) 0.2 Unknown
Mercury (Hg) mg/kg (dry) 0.0 Unknown

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 980
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 1 020
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 130
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 190

Ash Properties

Ash composition

CO2 wt% (ash) 1.50
SO3 wt% (ash) 1.15
Cl wt% (ash) 2.49
P2O5 wt% (ash) 5.68
SiO2 wt% (ash) 38.60
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.19
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.26
CaO wt% (ash) 2.70
MgO wt% (ash) 1.56
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.06
K2O wt% (ash) 12.20
Pb mg/kg (ash) 2.0
Cd mg/kg (ash) 0.2
Cu mg/kg (ash) 37.0
Hg mg/kg (ash) 0.0