sunflower (#419)

ID-number#419
Materialsunflower
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ sunflower ▸ sunflower
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro ▸ [229] overig stro
Ash typelaboratory
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Literaturehttp://edv1.vt.tuwien.ac.at/AG_HOFBA/BIOBIB/Biobib.htm (1997).

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% (ar)
Ash content wt% 3.51

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 60.33 62.52 Unknown
Hydrogen wt% 7.13 7.39 Unknown
Nitrogen wt% 2.00 2.07 Unknown
Sulphur wt% 0.12 0.12 Unknown
Oxygen wt% 26.80 27.77 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 100.00 100.00 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 24.35 25.24
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 25.95 26.89
HHVMilne MJ/kg 26.50 27.46 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 1 100.0 1 140.0 Unknown

Minor elements

Cadmium (Cd) mg/kg (dry) 0.2 Unknown
Copper (Cu) mg/kg (dry) 19.4 Unknown
Lead (Pb) mg/kg (dry) 0.3 Unknown
Mercury (Hg) mg/kg (dry) 0.0 Unknown

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 100
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 1 180
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 300
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 340

Ash Properties

Ash composition

CO2 wt% (ash) 8.20
SO3 wt% (ash) 3.22
Cl wt% (ash) 1.25
P2O5 wt% (ash) 18.50
SiO2 wt% (ash) 3.10
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.18
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.11
CaO wt% (ash) 6.60
MgO wt% (ash) 4.27
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.04
K2O wt% (ash) 27.50
Pb mg/kg (ash) 2.0
Cd mg/kg (ash) 0.3
Cu mg/kg (ash) 253.0
Hg mg/kg (ash) 0.0