almond shells (hulls) (#357)

ID-number#357
Materialalmond shells (hulls)
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ husk/shell/pit ▸ almond ▸ almond shells (hulls)
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [230] restproducten (doppen) ▸ [235] amandeldoppen
Ash typeASTM D1102; 600C ASTM D 1102, 600 Degree Celcius
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
LiteratureT. R. Miles, T. R. Miles,Jr, L. Baxter, R. W. Bryers, B. M. Jenkins and L. L. Oden: Alkali deposits found in biomass power plants. A preliminary investigation of their extend and nature, NREL/TP-433-8142, 82 p. (1995).

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 6.93
Ash content wt% 3.06 3.29
Volatile matter wt% 70.73 76.00 78.59
Fixed carbon wt% 19.27 20.71 21.41 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 45.88 49.30 50.98 Measured
Hydrogen wt% 5.56 5.97 6.17 Measured
Nitrogen wt% 0.71 0.76 0.79 Measured
Sulphur wt% 0.04 0.04 0.04 Measured
Oxygen wt% 37.81 40.63 42.01 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 99.99 99.99 99.99 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 16.77 18.20 18.82
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 18.16 19.51 20.17
HHVMilne MJ/kg 18.33 19.69 20.36 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg (dry) 100.0

Ash Properties

Ash composition

CO2 wt% (ash) 17.38
SO3 wt% (ash) 0.88
P2O5 wt% (ash) 4.46
SiO2 wt% (ash) 8.71
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 2.30
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 2.72
CaO wt% (ash) 10.50
MgO wt% (ash) 3.19
Na2O wt% (ash) 1.60
K2O wt% (ash) 48.70
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.09