almond shells (hulls) (#354)

Materialalmond shells (hulls)
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ husk/shell/pit ▸ almond ▸ almond shells (hulls)
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [230] restproducten (doppen) ▸ [235] amandeldoppen
Ash typegrinding, 60 mesh, 14 hours at 575 degC
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Remarksash fusion temperatures according to ASTM D-1857
LiteratureE. A. Osman and J. R. Goss: Ash chemical composition, deformation and fusion temperatures for wood and agricultural residues. In: Proceedings of Winter meeting of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, December 13-16, 1983, pp. 1-16 (1983).


Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 860
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 350

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 17.48
P2O5 wt% (ash) 7.79
SiO2 wt% (ash) 18.60
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 3.83
CaO wt% (ash) 16.00
MgO wt% (ash) 1.99
Na2O wt% (ash) 5.86
K2O wt% (ash) 14.70