almond shells (hulls) (#354)

Materialalmond shells (hulls)
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ husk/shell/pit ▸ almond ▸ almond shells (hulls)
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [230] restproducten (doppen) ▸ [235] amandeldoppen
Ash typegrinding, 60 mesh, 14 hours at 575 degC
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Remarksash fusion temperatures according to ASTM D-1857
LiteratureE. A. Osman and J. R. Goss: Ash chemical composition, deformation and fusion temperatures for wood and agricultural residues. In: Proceedings of Winter meeting of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, December 13-16, 1983, pp. 1-16 (1983).


Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Main biomass properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 860
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 350

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 17.48
P2O5 wt% (ash) 7.79
SiO2 wt% (ash) 18.60
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 3.83
CaO wt% (ash) 16.00
MgO wt% (ash) 1.99
Na2O wt% (ash) 5.86
K2O wt% (ash) 14.70