almond shells (hulls) (#352)

ID-number#352
Materialalmond shells (hulls)
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ husk/shell/pit ▸ almond ▸ almond shells (hulls)
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [230] restproducten (doppen) ▸ [235] amandeldoppen
Ash typeASTM D1102; 600C ASTM D 1102, 600 Degree Celcius
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
LiteratureT. R. Miles, T. R. Miles,Jr, L. Baxter, R. W. Bryers, B. M. Jenkins and L. L. Oden: Alkali deposits found in biomass power plants. A preliminary investigation of their extend and nature, NREL/TP-433-8142, 82 p. (1995).

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 6.52
Ash content wt% 5.73 6.13
Volatile matter wt% 68.99 73.80 78.62
Fixed carbon wt% 18.76 20.07 21.38 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 44.43 47.53 50.63 Measured
Hydrogen wt% 5.58 5.97 6.36 Measured
Nitrogen wt% 1.06 1.13 1.20 Measured
Sulphur wt% 0.06 0.06 0.06 Measured
Oxygen wt% 36.61 39.16 41.72 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 100.00 100.00 100.00 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 16.29 17.60 18.75
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 17.67 18.90 20.14
HHVMilne MJ/kg 17.93 19.18 20.43 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 187.0 200.0 213.1 Measured

Ash Properties

Ash composition

CO2 wt% (ash) 20.12
SO3 wt% (ash) 0.34
P2O5 wt% (ash) 5.10
SiO2 wt% (ash) 9.28
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.76
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 2.09
CaO wt% (ash) 8.07
MgO wt% (ash) 3.31
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.87
K2O wt% (ash) 52.90
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.05