Cynara cardunculus -L. (#3508)

ID-number#3508
MaterialCynara cardunculus -L.
Alternative nameCardoon
DescriptionPerennial, herbaceous crop of Mediterranean origin well adapted to the xerothermic conditions of Southern Europe, with a potential for high yields in such climates (1), (2)
Classification CEN/TS 14961 classification ▸ Solid biofuels ▸ Herbaceous biomass ▸ Agriculture and Horticulture herb
ECN Phyllis classification ▸ grass/plant ▸ other plants ▸ thistle
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [240] gewassen ▸ [249] overige gewassen
Sample date2011-08-30
Sample locationGreece, Florina
SubmitterLydia Fryda
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2015-04-15
Literature(1) Fernández, J.; Curt, M. D.; Aguado, P. L. Industrial applications of Cynara cardunculus L. for energy and other uses. Ind. Crops Prod. 2005, 24, 222−229. (2) Grammelis, P.; Malliopoulou, A.; Basinas, P.; Danalatos, N. G. Cultivation and characterization of Cynara cardunculus for solid biofuels production in the Mediterranean region. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9, 1241−1258.

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 11.00
Ash content wt% 4.54 5.10
Volatile matter wt% 66.75 75.00 79.96
Ash content at 550°C wt% 5.52 6.20
Ash content at 815°C wt% 4.54 5.10
Fixed carbon wt% 16.73 18.80 20.04 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 37.38 42.00 44.78
Hydrogen wt% 4.90 5.50 5.86
Nitrogen wt% 0.49 0.55 0.59
Sulphur wt% 0.13 0.15 0.16
Oxygen wt% 38.27 43.00 45.84
Total (with halides) wt% 97.89 97.63 97.47 Calculated

Calorific Values

Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 16.91 19.00 20.26
HHVMilne MJ/kg 14.50 16.29 17.36 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 2 035.4 2 287.0 2 438.2

Major elements

Aluminium (Al) mg/kg (dry) 182.0
Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 12 006.0
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 4 012.0
Calcium (Ca) mg/kg (dry) 12 205.0
Silicon (Si) mg/kg (dry) 700.0
Magnesium (Mg) mg/kg (dry) 1 320.0
Iron (Fe) mg/kg (dry) 122.0
Phosphorus (P) mg/kg (dry) 895.0
Titanium (Ti) mg/kg (dry) 14.0

Minor elements

Manganese (Mn) mg/kg (dry) 16.0
Lead (Pb) mg/kg (dry) 0.5
Zinc (Zn) mg/kg (dry) 14.0
Barium (Ba) mg/kg (dry) 23.0

Special components

Chlorine (Cl) wt% (daf) 0.23