Barley straw (#3169)

ID-number#3169
MaterialBarley straw
Alternative nameBarley straw (Finnish)
Latin nameHordeum vulgare
Classification CEN/TS 14961 classification ▸ Solid biofuels ▸ Herbaceous biomass ▸ Agriculture and Horticulture herb ▸ Cereal crops ▸ Straw parts
ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ barley ▸ barley
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro ▸ [222] gerstestro
Sample date1996-01-01
Sample locationFinland
Sample lot size0,2-1 m3
CountryFinland
SubmitterVTT
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2008-09-05
Remarkshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barley ash data, taken from original publication, added by ECN in 2012
LiteratureC. Wilén, A. Moilanen and E. Kurkula: Biomass feedstock analyses, VTT publications 282, Espoo 1996.

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 11.53 predried for storage
Volatile matter wt% 67.33 76.10 80.85
Ash content at 550°C wt% 5.20 5.88 CEN/TS 14775
Fixed carbon wt% 15.94 18.02 19.15 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 40.87 46.20 49.09 CEN/TS 15104
Hydrogen wt% 5.04 5.70 6.06 CEN/TS 15104
Nitrogen wt% 0.53 0.60 0.64 CEN/TS 15104
Sulphur wt% 0.07 0.08 0.08 CEN/TS15289
Oxygen wt% 36.75 41.54 44.14 by difference
Total (with halides) wt% 100.24 100.27 100.29 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 15.14 17.43 18.52 CEN/TS 14918
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 16.53 18.68 19.85
HHVMilne MJ/kg 16.06 18.15 19.29 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 2 421.4 2 737.0 2 908.0 neutron activation

Major elements

Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 12 188.0 neutron activation
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 333.0 neutron activation

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 750 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 050 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

American standard method, measured in reducing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 850 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 200 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

Commonly used properties

Bulk density (ar) kg/m³ (ar) 82 loose, not shaken

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 1.42
P2O5 wt% (ash) 2.52
SiO2 wt% (ash) 62.04
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.17
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.19
CaO wt% (ash) 4.48
MgO wt% (ash) 2.16
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.44
K2O wt% (ash) 19.27
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.02