Miscanthus (#3168)

ID-number#3168
MaterialMiscanthus
Alternative nameMiscanthus
Latin nameMiscanthus spp.
Classification CEN/TS 14961 classification ▸ Solid biofuels ▸ Herbaceous biomass ▸ Agriculture and Horticulture herb ▸ Grasses ▸ Whole plant
ECN Phyllis classification ▸ grass/plant ▸ miscanthus
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [210] gras ▸ [212] olifantsgras/miscanthus
Sample date1996-01-01
Sample locationItaly
Sample lot size0,2-1 m3
CountryItaly
SubmitterVTT
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2008-09-05
Remarkshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miscanthus ash data, taken from original publication, aded by ECN in 2012
LiteratureC. Wilén, A. Moilanen and E. Kurkula: Biomass feedstock analyses, VTT publications 282, Espoo 1996.

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 5.74 predried for storage
Volatile matter wt% 73.99 78.50 81.19
Ash content at 550°C wt% 3.12 3.31 CEN/TS 14775
Fixed carbon wt% 17.15 18.19 18.81 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 44.40 47.10 48.71 CEN/TS 15104
Hydrogen wt% 5.66 6.00 6.21 CEN/TS 15104
Nitrogen wt% 0.57 0.60 0.62 CEN/TS 15104
Sulphur wt% 0.52 0.55 0.57 CEN/TS15289
Oxygen wt% 39.25 41.64 43.07 by difference
Total (with halides) wt% 99.55 99.53 99.51 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 16.56 17.72 18.33 CEN/TS 14918
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 17.94 19.03 19.68
HHVMilne MJ/kg 17.83 18.91 19.56 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 3 078.5 3 266.0 3 377.8 neutron activation

Major elements

Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 9 702.0 neutron activation
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 259.0 neutron activation

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 835 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 1 005 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 020 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 220 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

American standard method, measured in reducing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 920 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 1 000 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 170 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 240 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

Commonly used properties

Bulk density (ar) kg/m³ (ar) 139 loose, not shaken

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 2.10
P2O5 wt% (ash) 5.27
SiO2 wt% (ash) 42.79
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.40
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.51
CaO wt% (ash) 7.56
MgO wt% (ash) 4.81
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.60
K2O wt% (ash) 25.30
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.03