Kenaf (#3167)

ID-number#3167
MaterialKenaf
Alternative nameKenaf
Latin nameHibiscus cannabinus
Classification CEN/TS 14961 classification ▸ Solid biofuels ▸ Herbaceous biomass ▸ Agriculture and Horticulture herb ▸ Cereal crops ▸ Whole plant
ECN Phyllis classification ▸ grass/plant ▸ kenaf
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [240] gewassen ▸ [249] overige gewassen
Sample date1996-01-01
Sample locationItaly
Sample lot size0,2-1 m3
CountryItaly
SubmitterVTT
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2008-09-05
Remarkshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenaf ash composition, taken from original publication, added by ECN, 2012
LiteratureC. Wilén, A. Moilanen and E. Kurkula: Biomass feedstock analyses, VTT publications 282, Espoo, 1996.

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 7.52 pre-dried for storage
Volatile matter wt% 73.43 79.40 82.39
Ash content at 550°C wt% 3.36 3.63 CEN/TS 14775
Fixed carbon wt% 15.69 16.97 17.61 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 43.10 46.60 48.36 CEN/TS 15104
Hydrogen wt% 5.36 5.80 6.02 CEN/TS 15104
Nitrogen wt% 0.92 1.00 1.04 CEN/TS 15104
Sulphur wt% 0.13 0.14 0.15 CEN/TS15289
Oxygen wt% 39.61 42.83 44.44 by difference
Total (with halides) wt% 100.16 100.17 100.18 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 15.83 17.32 17.97 CEN/TS 14918
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 17.18 18.58 19.28
HHVMilne MJ/kg 16.88 18.25 18.94 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 1 616.6 1 748.0 1 813.8 neutron activation analysis

Major elements

Aluminium (Al) mg/kg (dry) derived from ash composition
Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 7 254.0 neutron activitaion analysis
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 517.0 neutron activation analysis
Calcium (Ca) mg/kg (dry) derived from ash composition
Silicon (Si) mg/kg (dry) derived from ash composition
Magnesium (Mg) mg/kg (dry) derived from ash composition
Iron (Fe) mg/kg (dry) derived from ash composition
Phosphorus (P) mg/kg (dry) derived from ash composition
Titanium (Ti) mg/kg (dry) derived from ash composition

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 585 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 610 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

American standard method, measured in reducing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 630 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 640 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

Commonly used properties

Bulk density (ar) kg/m³ (ar) 138 loose, not shaken

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 5.74
P2O5 wt% (ash) 2.75
SiO2 wt% (ash) 6.63
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 1.22
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 1.78
CaO wt% (ash) 30.78
MgO wt% (ash) 5.97
Na2O wt% (ash) 1.12
K2O wt% (ash) 13.25
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.08