Sweet Sorghum (#3166)

ID-number#3166
MaterialSweet Sorghum
Alternative nameSweet Sorghum
Classification CEN/TS 14961 classification ▸ Solid biofuels ▸ Herbaceous biomass ▸ Agriculture and Horticulture herb ▸ Cereal crops ▸ Whole plant
ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ sorghum ▸ sweet sorghum
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro ▸ [229] overig stro
Sample date1996-01-01
Sample locationItaly
Sample lot size0,2-1 m3
CountryItaly
SubmitterVTT
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2008-09-05
Remarksash data, taken from original publication, added by ECN in 2012
LiteratureC. Wilén, A. Moilanen and E. Kurkula: Biomass feedstock analyses, VTT publications 282, Espoo 1996.

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 7.04 predried for storage
Volatile matter wt% 71.77 77.20 81.04
Ash content at 550°C wt% 4.41 4.74 CEN/TS 14775
Fixed carbon wt% 16.79 18.06 18.96 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 43.97 47.30 49.65 CEN/TS 15104
Hydrogen wt% 5.39 5.80 6.09 CEN/TS 15104
Nitrogen wt% 0.37 0.40 0.42 CEN/TS 15104
Sulphur wt% 0.08 0.09 0.09 CEN/TS15289
Oxygen wt% 38.74 41.67 43.74 by difference
Total (with halides) wt% 100.28 100.30 100.31 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 16.24 17.65 18.53 CEN/TS 14918
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 17.58 18.91 19.85
HHVMilne MJ/kg 17.37 18.69 19.62 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 2 785.1 2 996.0 3 145.1 neutron activation

Major elements

Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 4 614.0 neutron activation
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 678.0 neutron activation

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 975 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 1 090 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 257 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 340 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

American standard method, measured in reducing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 935 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 060 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 3.00
P2O5 wt% (ash) 2.98
SiO2 wt% (ash) 57.76
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.53
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.66
CaO wt% (ash) 8.95
MgO wt% (ash) 2.65
Na2O wt% (ash) 1.31
K2O wt% (ash) 8.19
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.05