Flax stalk (#3163)

ID-number#3163
MaterialFlax stalk
Alternative nameFlax straw
DescriptionWhole stalk or straw
Classification CEN/TS 14961 classification ▸ Solid biofuels ▸ Herbaceous biomass ▸ Agriculture and Horticulture herb ▸ Oil seed crops ▸ Stalks and leaves
ECN Phyllis classification ▸ grass/plant ▸ flax
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [240] gewassen ▸ [249] overige gewassen
Sample date1996-01-01
Sample locationFinland
Sample lot size0,2-1 m3
CountryFinland
SubmitterVTT
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2008-09-01
Remarksash data, taken from original publication, added by ECN in 2012
LiteratureC. Wilén, A. Moilanen and E. Kurkula: Biomass feedstock analyses, VTT publications 282, Espoo 1996.

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 8.35 predried for storage
Volatile matter wt% 72.22 78.80 81.18
Ash content at 550°C wt% 2.69 2.93 CEN/TS 14775
Fixed carbon wt% 16.74 18.27 18.82 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 45.00 49.10 50.58 CEN/TS 15104
Hydrogen wt% 5.59 6.10 6.28 CEN/TS 15104
Nitrogen wt% 1.19 1.30 1.34 CEN/TS 15104
Sulphur wt% 0.11 0.12 0.12 CEN/TS15289
Oxygen wt% 37.07 40.45 41.67 by difference
Total (with halides) wt% 100.05 100.06 100.06 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 16.94 18.71 19.27 CEN/TS 14918
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 18.37 20.04 20.64
HHVMilne MJ/kg 18.11 19.76 20.36 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 538.9 588.0 605.7 neutron activation

Major elements

Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 5 147.0 neutron activation
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 133.0 neutron activation

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 510 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 550 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

American standard method, measured in reducing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 530 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 620 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

Commonly used properties

Bulk density (ar) kg/m³ (ar) 126 loose, not shaken

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 3.75
P2O5 wt% (ash) 15.35
SiO2 wt% (ash) 3.64
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.50
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.07
CaO wt% (ash) 34.00
MgO wt% (ash) 5.14
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.41
K2O wt% (ash) 23.47
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.05