Rape stalk (#3162)

ID-number#3162
MaterialRape stalk
Alternative nameRape straw
DescriptionRape stalk
Classification CEN/TS 14961 classification ▸ Solid biofuels ▸ Herbaceous biomass ▸ Agriculture and Horticulture herb ▸ Oil seed crops ▸ Stalks and leaves
ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ rape ▸ rape
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro ▸ [229] overig stro
Sample date1996-01-01
Sample locationFinland
Sample lot size0,2-1 m3
CountryFinland
SubmitterVTT
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2008-09-01
Remarksash data, taken from original publication, added by ECN in 2012
LiteratureC. Wilén, A. Moilanen and E. Kurkula: Biomass feedstock analyses, VTT publications 282, Espoo 1996.

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 8.35
Volatile matter wt% 72.59 79.20 81.53
Ash content at 550°C wt% 2.62 2.86 CEN/TS 14775
Fixed carbon wt% 16.44 17.94 18.47 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 44.08 48.10 49.52 CEN/TS 15104
Hydrogen wt% 5.41 5.90 6.07 CEN/TS 15104
Nitrogen wt% 0.07 0.08 0.08 CEN/TS 15104
Sulphur wt% 0.19 0.21 0.22 CEN/TS15289
Total (with halides) wt% 60.82 57.25 55.99 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 16.33 18.04 18.57 CEN/TS 14918
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 17.72 19.33 19.90

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 884.4 965.0 993.4 neutron activation

Major elements

Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 5 768.0 neutron activation
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 166.0 neutron activation

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 500 ASTM D 1857 Leo AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 600 ASTM D 1857 Leo AF-600

American standard method, measured in reducing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 610 ASTM D 1857 Leo AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 630 ASTM D 1857 Leo AF-600

Commonly used properties

Bulk density (ar) kg/m³ (ar) 110 loose, not shaken

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 10.74
P2O5 wt% (ash) 8.94
SiO2 wt% (ash) 3.21
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.94
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.47
CaO wt% (ash) 29.38
MgO wt% (ash) 0.63
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.35
K2O wt% (ash) 16.86
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.07