Rape stalk (#3162)

ID-number#3162
MaterialRape stalk
Alternative nameRape straw
DescriptionRape stalk
Classification CEN/TS 14961 classification ▸ Solid biofuels ▸ Herbaceous biomass ▸ Agriculture and Horticulture herb ▸ Oil seed crops ▸ Stalks and leaves
ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ rape ▸ rape
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro ▸ [229] overig stro
Sample date1996-01-01
Sample locationFinland
Sample lot size0,2-1 m3
CountryFinland
SubmitterVTT
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2008-09-01
Remarksash data, taken from original publication, added by ECN in 2012
LiteratureC. Wilén, A. Moilanen and E. Kurkula: Biomass feedstock analyses, VTT publications 282, Espoo 1996.

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Main biomass properties

Proximate analysis

Moisture content wt% 8.35
Ash content at 550°C wt% 2.62 2.86 CEN/TS 14775
Volatile matter wt% 72.59 79.20 81.53
Fixed carbon wt% 16.44 17.94 18.47 Calculated

Ultimate analysis (macroelements)

Carbon wt% 44.08 48.10 49.52 CEN/TS 15104
Hydrogen wt% 5.41 5.90 6.07 CEN/TS 15104
Nitrogen wt% 0.07 0.08 0.08 CEN/TS 15104
Sulphur wt% 0.19 0.21 0.22 CEN/TS15289
Total (with halides) wt% 60.82 57.25 55.99 Calculated

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 884.4 965.0 993.4 neutron activation

Heating value

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 16.33 18.04 18.57 CEN/TS 14918
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 17.72 19.33 19.90

Trace elements composition

Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 5 768.0 neutron activation
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 166.0 neutron activation

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 500 ASTM D 1857 Leo AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 600 ASTM D 1857 Leo AF-600

American standard method, measured in reducing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 610 ASTM D 1857 Leo AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 630 ASTM D 1857 Leo AF-600

Physical Properties

Commonly used properties

Bulk density (ar) kg/m³ (ar) 110 loose, not shaken

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 10.74
P2O5 wt% (ash) 8.94
SiO2 wt% (ash) 3.21
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.94
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.47
CaO wt% (ash) 29.38
MgO wt% (ash) 0.63
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.35
K2O wt% (ash) 16.86
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.07