Wheat straw (#3161)

ID-number#3161
MaterialWheat straw
Alternative nameWheat straw (Danish)
DescriptionStraw_parts
Classification CEN/TS 14961 classification ▸ Solid biofuels ▸ Herbaceous biomass ▸ Agriculture and Horticulture herb ▸ Cereal crops ▸ Straw parts
ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ wheat ▸ wheat straw
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro ▸ [223] tarwestro
Sample date1996-01-01
Sample locationDenmark
Sample lot size0,2-1 m3
CountryDenmark
SubmitterVTT
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2008-09-01
Remarksash data, taken from original publication, added by ECN in 2012
LiteratureC. Wilén, A. Moilanen and E. Kurkula: Biomass feedstock analyses, VTT publications 282, Espoo 1996.

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 10.25 predried for storage
Volatile matter wt% 69.74 77.70 81.54
Ash content at 550°C wt% 4.23 4.71 CEN/TS 14775
Fixed carbon wt% 15.79 17.59 18.46 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 42.45 47.30 49.64 CEN/TS 15104
Hydrogen wt% 5.27 5.87 6.16 CEN/TS 15104
Nitrogen wt% 0.52 0.58 0.61 CEN/TS 15104
Sulphur wt% 0.06 0.07 0.07 CEN/TS15289
Oxygen wt% 37.24 41.49 43.54 by difference
Total (with halides) wt% 100.17 100.19 100.20 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 15.59 17.65 18.52 CEN/TS 14918
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 17.00 18.94 19.88
HHVMilne MJ/kg 16.85 18.78 19.71 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 1 534.7 1 710.0 1 794.5 neutron activation

Major elements

Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 5 480.0 neutron activation
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 140.0 neutron activation

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 860 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 1 030 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 045 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 365 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

American standard method, measured in reducing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 950 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 1 040 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 060 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 410 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

Commonly used properties

Bulk density (ar) kg/m³ (ar) 79 loose, not shaken

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 1.10
P2O5 wt% (ash) 2.27
SiO2 wt% (ash) 59.90
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.54
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.81
CaO wt% (ash) 7.28
MgO wt% (ash) 1.82
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.42
K2O wt% (ash) 16.86
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.04