Willow (#3159)

ID-number#3159
MaterialWillow
Alternative nameWillow
Latin nameSalix
DescriptionWhole plant without leaves
Classification CEN/TS 14961 classification ▸ Solid biofuels ▸ Woody biomass ▸ Forest and plantation wood ▸ Whole trees without roots ▸ Deciduous
ECN Phyllis classification ▸ untreated wood ▸ willow
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [100] hout ▸ [110] vers hout ▸ [120] loofhout ▸ [122] zacht loofhout
Sample date1996-01-01
Sample locationFinland
Sample lot size0,2-1 m3
CountryFinland
SubmitterVTT
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2008-09-01
Remarksash data, taken from original publication, added by ECN in 2012
LiteratureC. Wilén, A. Moilanen and E. Kurkula: Biomass feedstock analyses, VTT publications 282, Espoo 1996.

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 2.39
Volatile matter wt% 77.99 79.90 80.85
Ash content at 550°C wt% 1.15 1.18 CEN/TS 14775
Fixed carbon wt% 18.47 18.92 19.15 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 48.51 49.70 50.29 CEN/TS 15104
Hydrogen wt% 5.95 6.10 6.17 CEN/TS 15104
Nitrogen wt% 0.39 0.40 0.40 CEN/TS 15104
Sulphur wt% 0.03 0.03 0.03 CEN/TS15289
Oxygen wt% 41.57 42.59 43.10 by difference
Total (with halides) wt% 100.00 100.00 100.00 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 17.92 18.42 18.64 CEN/TS 14918
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 19.28 19.75 19.99
HHVMilne MJ/kg 19.36 19.84 20.07 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 36.1 37.0 37.4 neutron activation

Major elements

Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 4 058.0 neutron activation
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 37.0 neutron activation

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 490 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

American standard method, measured in reducing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 570 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 580 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

Commonly used properties

Bulk density (ar) kg/m³ (ar) 227 loose, not shaken

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 3.00
P2O5 wt% (ash) 11.46
SiO2 wt% (ash) 0.43
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.19
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.30
CaO wt% (ash) 30.78
MgO wt% (ash) 5.14
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.24
K2O wt% (ash) 26.50
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.02