Bark, Spruce (#3158)

ID-number#3158
MaterialBark, Spruce
Alternative namePine
DescriptionSpruce
Classification CEN/TS 14961 classification ▸ Solid biofuels ▸ Woody biomass ▸ Forest and plantation wood ▸ Whole trees without roots ▸ Coniferous
ECN Phyllis classification ▸ untreated wood ▸ bark ▸ bark, spruce
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [100] hout ▸ [110] vers hout ▸ [112] schors
Sample date1996-01-01
Sample locationFinland
Sample lot size0,2-1 m3
CountryFinland
SubmitterVTT
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2008-09-01
Remarksash data, taken from original publication, added by ECN in 2012
LiteratureC. Wilén, A. Moilanen and E. Kurkula: Biomass feedstock analyses, VTT publications 282, Espoo 1996.

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 5.25
Volatile matter wt% 71.25 75.20 77.00
Ash content at 550°C wt% 2.22 2.34 CEN/TS 14775
Fixed carbon wt% 21.28 22.46 23.00 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 47.28 49.90 51.10 CEN/TS 15104
Hydrogen wt% 5.59 5.90 6.04 CEN/TS 15104
Nitrogen wt% 0.38 0.40 0.41 CEN/TS 15104
Sulphur wt% 0.03 0.03 0.03 CEN/TS15289
Oxygen wt% 39.25 41.43 42.42 by difference
Total (with halides) wt% 100.03 100.03 100.03 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 17.44 18.54 18.98 CEN/TS 14918
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 18.79 19.83 20.31
HHVMilne MJ/kg 18.73 19.76 20.24 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 264.4 279.0 285.7 neutron activation

Major elements

Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 3 003.0 neutron activation
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 89.0 neutron activation

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 405 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 1 550 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 650 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 650 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

American standard method, measured in reducing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 565 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 1 580 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 650 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 650 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

Commonly used properties

Bulk density (ar) kg/m³ (ar) 289 loose, not shaken

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 0.97
P2O5 wt% (ash) 4.12
SiO2 wt% (ash) 1.50
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.14
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 1.08
CaO wt% (ash) 39.18
MgO wt% (ash) 5.14
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.33
K2O wt% (ash) 7.59
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.04