Forest residue chips, pine spruce (#3156)

ID-number#3156
MaterialForest residue chips, pine spruce
Alternative namePine, Spruce
DescriptionChips, high ash
Classification CEN/TS 14961 classification ▸ Solid biofuels ▸ Woody biomass ▸ Forest and plantation wood ▸ Whole trees without roots ▸ Coniferous
ECN Phyllis classification ▸ untreated wood ▸ fir/pine/spruce
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [100] hout ▸ [110] vers hout ▸ [130] naaldhout ▸ [132] naaldhout met schors
Sample date1996-01-01
Sample locationSweden
Sample lot size0,2-1 m3
CountrySweden
SubmitterVTT
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2008-09-01
Remarksash data, taken from original publication, added by ECN in 2012
LiteratureC. Wilén, A. Moilanen and E. Kurkula: Biomass feedstock analyses, VTT publications 282, Espoo 1996.

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 6.32
Volatile matter wt% 69.42 74.10 77.23
Ash content at 550°C wt% 3.79 4.05 CEN/TS 14775
Fixed carbon wt% 20.47 21.85 22.77 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 47.78 51.00 53.15 CEN/TS 15104
Hydrogen wt% 5.43 5.80 6.04 CEN/TS 15104
Nitrogen wt% 0.84 0.90 0.94 CEN/TS 15104
Sulphur wt% 0.04 0.04 0.04 CEN/TS15289
Oxygen wt% 35.80 38.21 39.82 by diffeence
Total (with halides) wt% 100.00 100.00 100.00 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 17.90 19.27 20.08 CEN/TS 14918
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 19.24 20.54 21.41
HHVMilne MJ/kg 19.03 20.31 21.17 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg (dry) 50.0 below detection limit of neutron activation

Major elements

Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 2 604.0 neutron activation
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 640.0 neutron activation

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 180 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 1 190 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 205 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 235 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

American standard method, measured in reducing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 200 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 1 210 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 225 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 240 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

Commonly used properties

Bulk density (ar) kg/m³ (ar) 271 loose, not shaken

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 1.35
P2O5 wt% (ash) 1.76
SiO2 wt% (ash) 27.81
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 2.00
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 5.67
CaO wt% (ash) 11.89
MgO wt% (ash) 1.82
Na2O wt% (ash) 1.44
K2O wt% (ash) 4.10
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.35