Forest residue chips, pine spruce (#3155)

ID-number#3155
MaterialForest residue chips, pine spruce
Alternative namePine, Spruce
DescriptionChips
Classification CEN/TS 14961 classification ▸ Solid biofuels ▸ Woody biomass ▸ Forest and plantation wood ▸ Whole trees without roots ▸ Coniferous
ECN Phyllis classification ▸ untreated wood ▸ fir/pine/spruce
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [100] hout ▸ [110] vers hout ▸ [130] naaldhout ▸ [132] naaldhout met schors
Sample date1996-01-01
Sample locationFinland
Sample lot size0,2-1 m3
CountryFinland
SubmitterVTT
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2008-09-01
Remarksash data. taken from original publication, added by ECN in 2012
LiteratureC. Wilén, A. Moilanen and E. Kurkula: Biomass feedstock analyses, VTT publications 282, Espoo 1996.

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 6.30
Volatile matter wt% 74.30 79.30 80.37
Ash content at 550°C wt% 1.25 1.33 CEN/TS 14775
Fixed carbon wt% 18.15 19.37 19.63 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 48.07 51.30 51.99 CEN/TS 15104
Hydrogen wt% 5.72 6.10 6.18 CEN/TS 15104
Nitrogen wt% 0.37 0.40 0.41 CEN/TS 15104
Sulphur wt% 0.02 0.02 0.02 CEN/TS15289
Oxygen wt% 38.28 40.85 41.40 by difference
Total (with halides) wt% 100.01 100.01 100.01 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 17.97 19.34 19.60 CEN/TS 14918
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 19.37 20.67 20.95
HHVMilne MJ/kg 19.29 20.59 20.87 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 71.2 76.0 77.0 neutron activation

Major elements

Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 1 377.0 neutron activation
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 76.0 neutron activation

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 175 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 1 205 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 230 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 250 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

American standard method, measured in reducing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 175 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 1 225 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 245 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 260 ASTM D 1857 Leco AF-600

Commonly used properties

Bulk density (ar) kg/m³ (ar) 313 loose, not shaken

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 1.62
P2O5 wt% (ash) 3.21
SiO2 wt% (ash) 38.51
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 3.72
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 4.72
CaO wt% (ash) 15.39
MgO wt% (ash) 3.98
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.31
K2O wt% (ash) 8.31
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.50