flax straw, Canada (#2910)

ID-number#2910
Materialflax straw, Canada
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ others
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [240] gewassen ▸ [249] overige gewassen
Ash typeASTM 3174-04 (575°C)
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2011-02-28
Remarksmoisture ASTM 3173-87; volatiles ASTM D 3175-07
LiteratureS. Naik, V.V. Goud, P.K. Rout, K. Jacobson, A.K. Dalai: Characterization of Canadian biomass for alternative renewable biofuel. Renewable Energy 35 (2010) 1624-1631.

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 7.90
Ash content wt% 3.00 3.26
Volatile matter wt% 80.31 87.20 90.14
Fixed carbon wt% 8.79 9.54 9.86 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 38.40 41.69 43.10 Measured
Hydrogen wt% 5.52 6.00 6.20 Measured
Nitrogen wt% 0.61 0.66 0.68 Measured
Sulphur wt% 0.08 0.09 0.09 Measured
Oxygen wt% 44.49 48.30 49.93 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 100.00 100.00 100.00 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 14.26 15.69 16.22
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 15.66 17.00 17.57
HHVMilne MJ/kg 14.95 16.23 16.78 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Biochemical composition

Cellulose wt% (dry) 28.70 Sugar Analysis
Hemicellulose wt% (dry) 26.80 Sugar Analysis
Lignin wt% (dry) 22.50 Measured
Extractives 95% EtOH wt% (dry) 8.00 Measured
Extractives hot water wt% (dry) 10.00 Measured

C5

Arabinan wt% (dry) 15.80
Xylan wt% (dry) 6.20
Sum C5 wt% (dry) 22.00 Calculated

C6

Mannan wt% (dry) 1.80
Galactan wt% (dry) 1.90
Glucan wt% (dry) 28.70
Sum C6 wt% (dry) 32.40 Calculated
Total ash + biochemical wt% (dry) 99.26 Calculated

Ash Properties

Ash composition

P2O5 wt% (ash) 4.99
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 2.72
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.12
CaO wt% (ash) 6.63
MgO wt% (ash) 10.62
Cu mg/kg (ash) 229.0
Mn mg/kg (ash) 1 139.0