hazelnut shell (#2875)

ID-number#2875
Materialhazelnut shell
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ husk/shell/pit ▸ hazelnut ▸ hazelnut shell
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [230] restproducten (doppen) ▸ [239] overige doppen
Ash type600°C according to ASTM E 1755. Ash melting according to DIN 51730. Ash contains 1.59% ZnO and 0.29% SnO.
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2010-07-12
RemarksProximate analyses and calorific value according to ASTM standards. Extractives according to ASTM D 1105, lignin Van Soest, alpha cellulose (22.9%) TAPPI T203 om-88. Holocellulose 38.6%.
LiteratureH. Haykiri-Acma, S. Yaman, S. Kucukbayrak: Effect of biomass on temperatures of sintering and initial deformation of lignite ash. Fuel 89 (2010) 3063-3068.

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 11.80
Ash content wt% 3.35 3.80
Volatile matter wt% 67.91 77.00 80.04
Fixed carbon wt% 16.93 19.20 19.96 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 40.81 46.27 48.10 Measured
Hydrogen wt% 5.26 5.96 6.20 Measured
Nitrogen wt% 1.36 1.54 1.60 Measured
Sulphur wt% 0.00 0.00 0.00 Measured
Oxygen wt% 37.42 42.42 44.10 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 100.00 100.00 100.00 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 14.70 17.00 17.67
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 16.14 18.30 19.02
HHVMilne MJ/kg 16.17 18.33 19.06 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Biochemical composition

Lignin wt% (dry) 51.50 van Soest
Extractives EtOH/toluene wt% (dry) 6.20 Measured
Total ash + biochemical wt% (dry) 61.50 Calculated

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 1 300
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 1 450

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 4.24
Cl wt% (ash) 2.34
P2O5 wt% (ash) 5.14
SiO2 wt% (ash) 0.98
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 1.34
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 10.42
CaO wt% (ash) 26.61
MgO wt% (ash) 6.22
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.00
K2O wt% (ash) 40.34
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.03
Cu mg/kg (ash) 799.0
Mn mg/kg (ash) 1 317.0
Cr mg/kg (ash) 1 026.0