almond shells (#2813)

ID-number#2813
Materialalmond shells
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ husk/shell/pit ▸ almond ▸ almond shells
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [230] restproducten (doppen) ▸ [235] amandeldoppen
Ash type550°C
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2006-07-17
Remarksfluid ash fusion temperature above 1400°C
LiteratureM.J. Fernandez Llorente, R. Escalada Cuadrado, J.M. Murillo Laplaza, J.E. Carrasco Garcia: Combustion in bubbling fluidised bed with bed material of limestone to reduce the biomass ash agglomeration an sintering. Fuel 85 (2006) 2081-2092

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 13.70
Ash content wt% 0.81 0.94
Volatile matter wt% 69.99 81.10 81.87
Fixed carbon wt% 15.50 17.96 18.13 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 42.89 49.70 50.17 Measured
Hydrogen wt% 5.44 6.30 6.36 Measured
Nitrogen wt% 0.22 0.26 0.26 Measured
Sulphur wt% 0.01 0.01 0.01 Measured
Oxygen wt% 36.93 42.79 43.20 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 100.00 100.00 100.00 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 15.74 18.63 18.80
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 17.26 20.00 20.19
HHVMilne MJ/kg 17.34 20.10 20.29 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 31.9 37.0 37.4 Measured

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 740
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 760
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 860

Commonly used properties

Bulk density (ar) kg/m³ (ar) 400

Ash Properties

Ash composition

CO2 wt% (ash) 34.00
SO3 wt% (ash) 2.00
Cl wt% (ash) 1.00
P2O5 wt% (ash) 2.40
SiO2 wt% (ash) 3.50
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.27
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.49
CaO wt% (ash) 16.00
MgO wt% (ash) 2.60
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.49
K2O wt% (ash) 31.00