sunflower shell (#2317)

ID-number#2317
Materialsunflower shell
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ husk/shell/pit ▸ sunflower ▸ sunflower shell
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [230] restproducten (doppen) ▸ [239] overige doppen
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2002-08-26
Remarksextractive matter (alcohol/benzene 1/1) 2.7%; cellulose etc. extractive-free
LiteratureDemirbas, A.: Fuel characteristics of olive husk and walnut, hazelnut, sunflower, and almond shells. Energy Sources 24 (2002) 215-221

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% (ar)
Ash content wt% 4.00
Volatile matter wt% 76.20 79.38
Fixed carbon wt% 19.80 20.63 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 47.40 49.38 Measured
Hydrogen wt% 5.80 6.04 Measured
Nitrogen wt% 1.40 1.46 Measured
Sulphur wt% 0.05 0.05 Measured
Oxygen wt% 41.40 43.13 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 100.05 100.05 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 16.73 17.43
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 18.00 18.75
HHVMilne MJ/kg 18.64 19.42 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Biochemical composition

Cellulose wt% (dry) 48.40 Measured
Hemicellulose wt% (dry) 34.60 Measured
Lignin wt% (dry) 17.00 Measured
Extractives EtOH/toluene wt% (dry) 2.70 Measured
Total ash + biochemical wt% (dry) 106.70 Calculated

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 1.30
P2O5 wt% (ash) 4.80
SiO2 wt% (ash) 16.60
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 2.10
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 2.90
CaO wt% (ash) 15.80
MgO wt% (ash) 6.10
Na2O wt% (ash) 1.50
K2O wt% (ash) 35.60
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.10