hazelnut shell (#2315)

ID-number#2315
Materialhazelnut shell
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ husk/shell/pit ▸ hazelnut ▸ hazelnut shell
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [230] restproducten (doppen) ▸ [239] overige doppen
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2002-08-26
Remarksextractive matter (alcohol/benzene 1/1) 3.3%; cellulose etc. extractive-free
LiteratureDemirbas, A.: Fuel characteristics of olive husk and walnut, hazelnut, sunflower, and almond shells. Energy Sources 24 (2002) 215-221

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% (ar)
Ash content wt% 1.40
Volatile matter wt% 70.30 71.30
Fixed carbon wt% 28.30 28.70 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 51.60 52.33 Measured
Hydrogen wt% 6.20 6.29 Measured
Nitrogen wt% 1.60 1.62 Measured
Sulphur wt% 0.04 0.04 Measured
Oxygen wt% 40.20 40.77 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 101.04 101.05 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 18.85 19.11
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 20.20 20.49
HHVMilne MJ/kg 20.76 21.05 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Biochemical composition

Cellulose wt% (dry) 26.80 Measured
Hemicellulose wt% (dry) 30.40 Measured
Lignin wt% (dry) 42.90 Measured
Extractives EtOH/toluene wt% (dry) 3.30 Measured
Total ash + biochemical wt% (dry) 104.80 Calculated

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 1.10
P2O5 wt% (ash) 3.20
SiO2 wt% (ash) 27.30
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 3.80
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 3.10
CaO wt% (ash) 15.40
MgO wt% (ash) 7.90
Na2O wt% (ash) 1.30
K2O wt% (ash) 30.40
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.10