almond shells (#2314)

ID-number#2314
Materialalmond shells
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ husk/shell/pit ▸ almond ▸ almond shells
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [230] restproducten (doppen) ▸ [235] amandeldoppen
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2002-08-26
Remarksextractive matter (alcohol/benzene 1/1) 2.7%; cellulose etc. extractive-free
LiteratureDemirbas, A.: Fuel characteristics of olive husk and walnut, hazelnut, sunflower, and almond shells. Energy Sources 24 (2002) 215-221

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% (ar)
Ash content wt% 3.30
Volatile matter wt% 74.00 76.53
Fixed carbon wt% 22.70 23.47 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 47.90 49.53 Measured
Hydrogen wt% 6.00 6.20 Measured
Nitrogen wt% 1.10 1.14 Measured
Sulphur wt% 0.06 0.06 Measured
Oxygen wt% 41.60 43.02 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 99.96 99.96 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 17.49 18.09
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 18.80 19.44
HHVMilne MJ/kg 19.10 19.75 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Biochemical composition

Cellulose wt% (dry) 50.70 Measured
Hemicellulose wt% (dry) 28.90 Measured
Lignin wt% (dry) 20.40 Measured
Extractives EtOH/toluene wt% (dry) 2.70 Measured
Total ash + biochemical wt% (dry) 106.00 Calculated

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 0.80
P2O5 wt% (ash) 4.50
SiO2 wt% (ash) 10.70
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 2.80
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 2.70
CaO wt% (ash) 10.50
MgO wt% (ash) 5.20
Na2O wt% (ash) 1.60
K2O wt% (ash) 48.70
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.10