straw, typical average (#2129)

ID-number#2129
Materialstraw, typical average
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ others
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2001-04-10
RemarksDanish cereal straw. Water 8%-23%, ash 2%-7%, LHVdaf 18000-19000, volatiles 75%-81%, Cl 0.1%-1.1%, Si 0.1%-1.5%, K 0.2%-1.9%
LiteratureB. Sander: Fuel data for Danish biofuels and improvement of the quality of straw and whole crops. Biomass for energy and environment. Proc. 9th Eur. bioenergy conf. (Eds. P.Chartier et al.), pp.490-495, Pergamon (1996). + Biomass&Bioenergy 12(1997)177-183

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 14.00
Ash content wt% 3.87 4.50
Volatile matter wt% 67.08 78.00 81.68
Fixed carbon wt% 15.05 17.50 18.32 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 40.85 47.50 49.74 Measured
Hydrogen wt% 5.07 5.90 6.18 Measured
Nitrogen wt% 0.60 0.70 0.73 Measured
Sulphur wt% 0.13 0.15 0.16 Measured
Oxygen wt% 35.13 40.85 42.77 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 100.00 100.00 100.00 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 14.93 17.76 18.60
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 16.38 19.05 19.95
HHVMilne MJ/kg 16.30 18.96 19.85 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 3 440.0 4 000.0 4 188.5 Measured

Major elements

Aluminium (Al) mg/kg (dry) 50.0 Measured
Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 10 000.0 Measured
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 500.0 Measured
Calcium (Ca) mg/kg (dry) 4 000.0 Measured
Silicon (Si) mg/kg (dry) 8 000.0 Measured
Magnesium (Mg) mg/kg (dry) 700.0 Measured
Iron (Fe) mg/kg (dry) 100.0 Measured
Phosphorus (P) mg/kg (dry) 800.0 Measured