almond shells (#2064)

ID-number#2064
Materialalmond shells
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ husk/shell/pit ▸ almond ▸ almond shells
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [230] restproducten (doppen) ▸ [235] amandeldoppen
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2001-04-05
Remarkscharcoal yield 36.7% at 1 MPa, fixed-C yield 28.9%
LiteratureAntal,M.J., Allen,S.G., Dai,X, Shimizu,B., Tam,M.S. and Grønli: Attainment of the theoretical yield of carbon from biomass. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 39 (2000) 4024-4031

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% (ar)
Ash content wt% 1.03

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 49.94 50.46 Measured
Hydrogen wt% 5.79 5.85 Measured
Nitrogen wt% 0.17 0.17 Measured
Sulphur wt% 0.01 0.01 Measured
Oxygen wt% 45.01 45.48 Measured
Total (with halides) wt% 101.95 101.97 Calculated

Calorific Values

HHVMilne MJ/kg 19.25 19.45 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Biochemical composition

Cellulose wt% (dry) 24.70 Sugar Analysis
Hemicellulose wt% (dry) 27.00 Sugar Analysis
Lignin wt% (dry) 27.20 Measured
Lignin acid insoluble (AIL) wt% (dry) 27.20 Measured

C5

Arabinan wt% (dry) 0.00
Xylan wt% (dry) 28.70
Sum C5 wt% (dry) 28.70 Calculated

C6

Mannan wt% (dry) 0.00
Galactan wt% (dry) 2.00
Glucan wt% (dry) 27.50
Sum C6 wt% (dry) 29.50 Calculated
Total ash + biochemical wt% (dry) 79.93 Calculated