wheat straw (#1965)

ID-number#1965
Materialwheat straw
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ wheat ▸ wheat straw
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro ▸ [223] tarwestro
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date2001-02-21
RemarksCl calculated from ash (assuming Cl in biomass/Cl in ash = 3, like for ID 1764); ash sintering starts at 750°C, at 900°C hard fused material
LiteratureKoukios,E.G.; Arvelakis,S.; Georgali,B.: Physico-chemical upgrading of agroresidues as solid biofuels; Proc. 4th biomass conference of the Americas, p.299-304

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 6.50
Ash content wt% 7.01 7.50
Volatile matter wt% 71.06 76.00 82.16
Fixed carbon wt% 15.43 16.50 17.84 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 40.86 43.70 47.24 Measured
Hydrogen wt% 4.75 5.08 5.49 Measured
Nitrogen wt% 0.74 0.79 0.85 Measured
Sulphur wt% 0.40 0.43 0.46 Measured
Oxygen wt% 39.36 42.10 45.51 Measured
Total (with halides) wt% 100.19 100.20 100.22 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 16.49 17.80 19.25
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 17.68 18.91 20.45
HHVMilne MJ/kg 15.33 16.39 17.72 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 5 610.0 6 000.0 6 486.5 Measured

Ash Properties

Ash composition

SO3 wt% (ash) 5.27
Cl wt% (ash) 2.73
SiO2 wt% (ash) 39.20
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 3.85
CaO wt% (ash) 14.40
MgO wt% (ash) 4.30
Na2O wt% (ash) 4.30
K2O wt% (ash) 14.06