wheat straw (Danish, weathered) (#1303)

Materialwheat straw (Danish, weathered)
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ wheat ▸ wheat straw (Danish, weathered)
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro ▸ [223] tarwestro
Ash type550 degC
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date1998-08-21
LiteratureA. van der Drift and A. Olsen: Conversion of biomass, prediction and solution methods for ash agglomeration and related problems, final report (in preparation), EU Joule contract JOR-CT95-0079 (1999).


Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Main biomass properties

Proximate analysis

Moisture content wt% 12.50
Ash content wt% 2.89 3.30

Ultimate analysis (macroelements)

Total (with halides) wt% 15.50 3.43 0.13 Calculated


Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 1 137.5 1 300.0 1 344.4 Measured

Heating value

Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 16.98 19.41 20.07

Trace elements composition

Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 6 100.0 Measured
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 60.0 Measured

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 870
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 050
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 240

American standard method, measured in reducing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 921
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 966
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 119
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 161

Ash Properties

Ash composition

CO2 wt% (ash) 1.80
SO3 wt% (ash) 5.00
Cl wt% (ash) 0.65
P2O5 wt% (ash) 4.20
SiO2 wt% (ash) 42.00
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.20
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.40
CaO wt% (ash) 14.00
MgO wt% (ash) 2.60
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.30
K2O wt% (ash) 21.00
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.02