wheat straw (Danish) (#1302)

ID-number#1302
Materialwheat straw (Danish)
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ straw (stalk/cob/ear) ▸ wheat ▸ wheat straw (Danish)
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [220] stro ▸ [223] tarwestro
Ash type550 deg C
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
Submission date1998-08-21
LiteratureA. van der Drift and A. Olsen: Conversion of biomass, prediction and solution methods for ash agglomeration and related problems, final report (in preparation), EU Joule contract JOR-CT95-0079 (1999).

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 11.10
Ash content wt% 6.31 7.10
Volatile matter wt% 66.59 74.90 80.62
Fixed carbon wt% 16.00 18.00 19.38 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 40.72 45.80 49.30 Measured
Hydrogen wt% 5.30 5.96 6.42 Measured
Nitrogen wt% 0.40 0.45 0.48 Measured
Sulphur wt% 0.14 0.16 0.17 Measured
Oxygen wt% 35.68 40.13 43.20 Calculated
Total (with halides) wt% 100.00 100.00 100.00 Calculated

Calorific Values

Net calorific value (LHV) MJ/kg 15.01 17.19 18.50
Gross calorific value (HHV) MJ/kg 16.44 18.49 19.90
HHVMilne MJ/kg 16.48 18.54 19.95 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Halides

Chlorine (Cl) mg/kg 3 556.0 4 000.0 4 305.7 Measured
Fluorine (F) mg/kg (dry) 10.0

Major elements

Potassium (K) mg/kg (dry) 12 400.0 Measured
Sodium (Na) mg/kg (dry) 100.0 Measured

Physical Properties

Ash melting behaviour

American standard method, measured in oxidizing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 850
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 090
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 200

American standard method, measured in reducing conditions

IDT (initial deformation temperature) °C 931
SOT (softening or spherical temperature) °C 945
HT (hemispherical temperature) °C 1 075
FT (fluid temperature) °C 1 351

Ash Properties

Ash composition

CO2 wt% (ash) 0.50
SO3 wt% (ash) 3.50
Cl wt% (ash) 3.50
P2O5 wt% (ash) 2.30
SiO2 wt% (ash) 54.00
Fe2O3 wt% (ash) 0.06
Al2O3 wt% (ash) 0.12
CaO wt% (ash) 6.30
MgO wt% (ash) 2.00
Na2O wt% (ash) 0.23
K2O wt% (ash) 21.30
TiO2 wt% (ash) 0.01