almond shells (#1109)

ID-number#1109
Materialalmond shells
Classification ECN Phyllis classification ▸ husk/shell/pit ▸ almond ▸ almond shells
NTA 8003 classification ▸ [200] biomassa uit land- en tuinbouw ▸ [230] restproducten (doppen) ▸ [235] amandeldoppen
Submitter organisationECN (Netherlands)
LiteratureS. Rapagnà and A. Latif: Steam gasification of almond shells in a fluidised bed reactor: The influence of temperature and particle size on product yield and distribution. Biomass and Bioenergy 12 (4) pp. 281-288 (1997).

Values

Property Unit Value Std dev Det lim Lab Date Method Remarks
ar dry daf

Fuel Properties

Proximate Analysis

Moisture content wt% 8.84
Ash content wt% 1.07 1.17
Volatile matter wt% 72.45 79.48 80.42
Fixed carbon wt% 17.64 19.35 19.58 Calculated

Ultimate Analysis

Carbon wt% 45.31 49.70 50.29 Measured
Hydrogen wt% 5.48 6.01 6.08 Measured
Oxygen wt% 38.73 42.49 42.99 Measured
Total (with halides) wt% 99.43 99.37 99.36 Calculated

Calorific Values

HHVMilne MJ/kg 18.03 19.78 20.01 Calculated

Chemical Analyses

Biochemical composition

Cellulose wt% (dry) 31.70 Unknown
Hemicellulose wt% (dry) 30.60 Unknown
Lignin wt% (dry) 38.20 Unknown
Total ash + biochemical wt% (dry) 101.67 Calculated